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What is Cholesteatoma | All Details about Cholesteatoma

What is Cholesteatoma 


What is Cholesteatoma : You must often here this word Cholesteatoma. First of all you must know “What is Cholesteatoma”Cholesteatoma is defined as the  the abnormal skin growth in the middle ear behind the ear drum. This can cause infections in that particular area. The continuous growth of the cholesteatoma can result in the destruction of  bones in the middle ear. And can  leading to hearing loss, dizziness and in rare cases facial muscle paralysis.

What is Cholesteatoma The scientific reason behind the Cholesteatoma is chronic, purulent inflammation of the middle ear. This is caused by a proliferation of squamous epithelium from the outer auditory canal into the middle ear. This result in the eardrum separates the middle ear from the outer auditory canal. In healthy people, the middle ear is lined with mucosal epithelium, and the outer auditory canal is lined with squamous epithelium.

we talked about What is Cholesteatoma, NOW we talk about types of cholesteatoma

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Types of cholesteatoma


Generally there are mainly three types of cholesteatoma are identified and they are mentioned below :

  1. Congenital cholesteatoma.
  2. Primary acquired cholesteatoma.
  3. Secondary acquired cholesteatoma




Congoential cholesteatoma  :  This occurs when squamous epithelium residue remains in the middle ear during development of the embryo. The tympanic membrane is intact.This type of cholesteatoma happens in very rare cases.. This is the first type of cholesteatoma and is called as Congoential cholesteatoma.


Primary acquire cholesteatoma :  This type of cholesteatoma is caused due to the ventilation malfunction in the middle of ear. This is often caused by the insufficient tube permeability. This is the only tube which is conduct between the middle ear and the nasopharyngeal. Because of this, malfunction leads to the low pressure on the middle ear cells. And consequently the another membrane creates called tympanic membrane called retraction pocket. There is a region in the tympanic membrane called flaccid. This happens the most and are called as Shrapnell’s membrane. The reason behind this area flaccida is that the tympanic membrane is very limp and. Squamous epithelium accumulates in this retraction pocket. Cholesteatoma results from it after a few years. This type of defect is called as Primary acquire cholesteatoma.


Secondary acquired cholesteatoma : In this the epithelium is penetrate into the middle ear. This is caused by the pre-existing peripheral defect in the tympanic membrane. This tympanic membrane allows the epithelium to penetrate. This type of cholesteatoma is known as the secondary acquire cholesteatoma.

(You can see the picture to take the exact idea of structure of your ear)

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What causes a cholesteatoma


The  Air to flow through the ear and equalize ear pressure and Eustachian tube is the tube which gives way to the air to flow. It may not work properly due to any of the following:

  • chronic ear infections
  • sinus infections
  • colds
  • allergies

These are some of the main reason for the cause of cholesteatoma.

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Symptoms of Cholesteatoma


If you do have Cholesteatoma, then you might notice the following symptoms. Also at the Initially stage  the affected ear may drain a foul-smelling fluid and  the cyst grows, and it will start  begin to create a sense of pressure in your ear, which may cause some discomfort and  aching pain in or behind your ear. Some of the others symptoms are ;

  1. Hearing loss
  2. Vertigo
  3. Pain in ears
  4. Facial muscle paralysis

If you notice any of these symptoms, Call your doctor right away or it might be important to contact a health medical professional such as an ENT specialist or an audiologist because it is very important to check it on time to cure the disease.

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Diagnosis of Cholestetoma


To determine whether you have a cholesteatoma it is important to get it diagnosed early so the specialist of ears so they can  help you by finding the right treatment option for your ear. Your  Treatment and diagnosis should be done by an audiologist or an ENT specialist. Diagnosis is usually determined by  different methods like :


Ear Microscopy

The Ear microscope is used to magnify the view of the ear drum helps the specialist or surgeon with diagnosis. The typical findings here are a defect of the tympanic membrane, white epithelium scales, and eventually bone erosion  of the ear canal wall which are very close to the eardrum.

CT Scan (computer tomography)

A CT scan is a  test that captures images from a cross section of your body. The scan allows your doctor to see inside your ear and skull. This can helps the surgeon to see the better visual of the cholesteatoma and helps them to get the exact idea of how to treat it.

(You can see the picture to take the exact idea of structure of your ear)

Treatment: Cholesteatoma surgery

You believe it or not but there is  only one  way to treat a cholesteatoma is to remove it by doing ear surgery.  But if your ear is  infected,then  the infections can be treated medically with antibiotics, ear drops and topical treatments. However, if you have the surgery then the cyst must be removed to prevent the complications that can occur if it grows larger  and the tympanic cavity must be removed. It is very important to remove cyst because they do not go naturally and if not remove then  it start  continue to grow and cause additional problems.

When  cholesteatoma has been diagnosed, surgeons will recommend you a regimen of antibiotics, ear drops, and careful cleaning of the ear will most likely be prescribed to treat the infected cyst, reduce inflammation, and drain the ear. After that your surgeon can make a plan to deal with that cholesteatoma.

In most cases, the surgery is an outpatient procedure which means you can go to your home after the treatment or surgery. A hospital stay is only necessary if the  cholesteatoma is very big or if you have a serious infection. The surgery is done under general anesthesia. Sometimes while your surgery some bones in your ear gets damaged. And it is very important to repair them. Then second surgery is done to repair the damaged bones in your ear. Once the cholesteatoma is removed, you’ll need to attend follow-up appointments to evaluate results. And ensure the cyst hasn’t come back.

After surgery, some people experience temporary dizziness or taste abnormalities. These side effects almost always resolve themselves within a few days. So do not take much tension or stress about that !

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Prognosis of Cholesteatoma


Prognosis of Cholesteatoma : The prognosis is mainly depends upon your condition of your cholesteatoma and and the course of treatment. Most of the patients when complete their treatment then they do not have any further issues because with the successful surgery and complete removal of the cyst results in the good chances of recovery after the treatment.


Tips to prevent cholesteatoma


There is no way to prevent it. The important is that you must be  aware of the symptoms of the cholesteatomas. This helps to identified the presence of cholesteatoma. And treated at its initially stage with less problems and high chances of success in less time period.

You can prevent cholesteatomas later in life by treating ear infections quickly and thoroughly by using antibiotics or ear drops. However, cholesteatomas  may still occur. It’s important to treat cholesteatomas as early as possible to prevent complications. Call your doctor or ear specialist right away if you believe you have a cholesteatoma.

Now, You can tell anyone if some ask you What is Cholesteatoma, so best of luck !


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