Components of Physical Fitness: In Physical Fitness There are 5 components of physical fitness. These five main components of physical fitness are :
Each component has it’s own Importance. All These components are directly or indirectly related with each other. Each component has its own importance in different games and sports. These components are explained as below :
- Strength : It may be defined as the amount of muscular force one is capable of exerting in a single muscular contraction. Strength is an essential component for games and sports. Different games require different level and type of strength. Systematic training can improve the strength.
- Speed : It is the ability to perform movement at faster rate. In other words, speed may be defined as the capacity to perform a movement of the same pattern at faster rate. Different sports required different types of fast movements and quick reactions. It is one of the important components for sprinting and also required for fast responses in games and sports. Speed depends on the heredity. It is difficult to improve speed significantly but up to some extent it can be improved by proper training and by reducing the reaction time of the individual. It is used in every sport activity except endurance related activities.
Speed of a person depends upon the type of muscle fiber. There are two types of muscle fiber
Fast Twitch Fibers (White Fibers) : Contract rapidly and produce maximum force and fatigue quickly.
Slow Twitch Fibers (Red Fibers) : Contract slowly and produce less force and fatigue slowly.
- Endurance : It is the ability to sustain or continue activity. In simple words, it is ability to reduce fatigue. It is one of the important components for middle and long distances races and also required for major games like football, handball, basketball and hockey etc. It can be measured through distance run.
- Flexibility : It is very essential for Physical fitness. It is the ability of joints to move in maximum range. In other words, this is the range of a joint due to its structure, surrounding, adjoining ligaments, tendons and muscles. Flexibility is not only required for players but it is essential for every common person. An individual with flexibility body can perform any type of activities easily. He can work more by using less power. Sports injuries can be avoided to a great extent, if sports person is flexible.
- Co-ordination : It is the ability of body to perform movement with perfection and efficiency. In other words, it is ability to change direction in minimum possible time without getting imbalanced. Infact, it is the proper co-ordination of strength, speed, endurance and flexibility during movement. The accuracy of rhythm, actions, change of direction etc. depends upon the co-ordination ability. These abilities are of many types such as reaction ability, balance ability, rhythm ability, and adaptation ability etc. This ability can be increased by certain special kind of exercise.